Aesthetic Surgery Journal Open Forum
Masculinizing chest reconstruction is the most common gender-affirming surgery in transgender males. Despite the current literature’s acknowledgment of the vital role that proper placement of the nipple-areola complex (NAC) plays in a masculine chest contour, there is still much debate regarding the best anatomical landmarks to achieve the desired result.
The primary aim of this study is to determine which landmarks for NAC placement can be applied across diverse body types and aid surgeons in creating a masculine chest.
Twenty-five formaldehyde-embalmed male cadavers were analyzed by conducting various measurements of the NAC, nipple, and surrounding bony and muscular landmarks to identify the most consistent landmarks for proper NAC placement. Linear regression analyses were run to determine how the distance between nipple to respective landmarks varied based on antemortem body mass index (BMI), height, weight, and age.
The measurements for the inferior and lateral borders of the pectoralis major muscle (PMM) displayed the least amount of variance of all the anatomical landmarks studied. Additionally, there was no significant change in these pectoral measurements with varying BMI, height, weight, or age, indicating that these measurements are reliable landmarks for NAC placement across various body types. The average NAC placement in relation to the inferior and lateral borders of PMM was around 2.5 and 2.0 cm, respectively.
Our cadaveric analysis indicates that aesthetically pleasing masculine chest results can be produced consistently across varying body types when adhering to a simple pectoral approach in NAC placement.
body mass index procedure, cadaver, nipples, chest, sex reassignment surgery, areola, pectoralis major muscle, anatomical landmarks
Moorefield AK, Stock A, Rose-Reneau Z, Singh P, Azari Z, Wright B, Singhal V. Analysis of Nipple-Areola Complex Localization Using Male Cadavers: Considerations for Gender-Affirming Surgery. Aesthetic Surgery Journal Open Forum. 2021; 3(4). doi: 10.1093/asjof/ojab032.