Neuroma-in-Continuity: A Review of Pathophysiology and Approach to the Affected Patient

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Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation


A neuroma-in-continuity is a neuroma resulting from a nerve injury in which internal neuronal elements are partially disrupted (with a variable degree of disruption to the endoneurium and perineurium) while the epineurium typically remains intact. The portion of injured axons are misdirected and embedded in connective tissue, which may give rise to local neuroma pain and a distal nerve deficit. The lesion may result from a multitude of injury mechanisms, and clinical presentation is often variable depending on the nerve affected. Clinical, electrodiagnostic, and imaging examinations are helpful in assessing the extent and degree of the lesion. If no clear evidence of recovery is identified within 3-4 months post-injury, the patient may benefit from operative exploration. Surgical management options include neurolysis, neuroma resection, nerve grafting, and nerve transfer, or a combination of modalities. A primary consideration of surgery is the possibility of further downgrading nerve function in the pursuit of more, thereby highlighting the need to carefully weigh the advantages and disadvantages prior to surgical intervention. The objective of this review article is to describe the current understanding of the pathophysiology of neuroma-in-continuity lesions, and to review the approach to the affected patient including clinical evaluation, ancillary testing, and intraoperative assessment and treatment options.



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nerve, nerve injury, neuroma-in-continuity, névrome en continuité