Systematic Review of Clear Cell Hidradenoma

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Journal of the American College of Surgeons


Introduction: Clear cell hidradenoma (CCH) is an extremely rare benign adnexal skin tumor originating from eccrine sweat glands. The purpose of this review is to analyze and demonstrate trends in the location, occurrence, and presentation of cancer.

Methods: This study is a systematic review of 449 case report articles published since 1979 identified through PubMed. The search keywords are “acrospiroma” and “clear cell hidradenoma.” Five investigators reviewed the articles and extracted the after information: 1) demographics; 2) medical history and medications; 3) anatomic location and characteristic of the CCH; 4) malignancy; 5) CCH progression timeline.

Results: Out of 449 articles, 231 articles with 237 CCH cases are included in the study. The average age is 54.7 (±21.1) years old and 54% are females. Thirty-six CCH cases were reported to be cancerous. Genitourinary is the most common location for cancerous CCH. The likelihood that the CCH becoming cancerous among women is 1.65 times higher than men (odds ratio=1.65; 95% CI=0.72-3.78; p-value=0.24). The most extended length of cancerous CCH is 2 cm longer than non-cancerous CCH (p-value=0.023). Cases with cancerous CCH reported to have it 2.75 years longer than non-cancerous CCH cases (p-value=0.048).

Conclusion: CCH is a rare skin tumor commonly found in genitourinary, face, and head areas. No known risk factors have been associated with CCH. The prevalence of cancerous CCH is higher in women. The length of the CCH and the time it grows could be indicators of cancerous CCH. Surgical excision and biopsy of the tumor are recommended.



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