The Eyes Have It: When Skin Findings Prompt Referral to Ophthalmology

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Current Opinion in Pediatrics


Purpose of review: Co-presentation of ocular and cutaneous conditions is common and prompt recognition of known associations may be imperative to sight-saving intervention. There are currently limited reviews in the pediatric literature addressing comorbid ocular and dermatologic presentations. Recent diagnostic and therapeutic advances have drastically altered the prognostic landscape for several disease states when recognition and referral are timely. The aim of this report is to examine important oculocutaneous disease associations with emphasis on management of ocular complications and appropriate referral practices to ophthalmology specialists.

Recent findings: Oculocutaneous associations can be broadly classified into four etiologic categories: infectious, inflammatory, genetic, and medication/nutrition induced pathology. Several conditions in all four categories have had recent advances in their etiologic understanding, diagnostic evaluation, and therapeutic approach. Thematically, these advances highlight increasing disease prevalence of certain conditions, previously unrecognized pediatric relevance of others, updated diagnostic criteria, and newer categories of iatrogenic illness induced by advances in medical therapy.

Summary: This review is designed to provide the pediatric practitioner a vignette-based high-level overview of both common and sight threatening associations that should prompt consideration for ophthalmology consultation. Conditions were selected based on relevance, relative urgency, and recent advances in their etiologic/therapeutic understanding.



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child, comorbidity, ophthalmology, skin diseases