Arthroscopy, Sports Medicine, and Rehabilitation
Purpose: To investigate the relationship between the Segond fracture and the anterolateral complex of the knee.
Methods: Between January 2014 and March 2020, patients who presented with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear requiring acute surgical reconstruction (within 10 days from trauma) were evaluated for inclusion in this study. Patients were included if they had an acute ACL tear with an associated Segond fracture (or "Segond lesion") as detected by radiograph or magnetic resonance imaging. The lateral compartment was exposed in all cases using a 5-cm lateral hockey-stick incision, which was carried down to the iliotibial band. The fascia lata was first inspected and then longitudinally divided along its fibers to expose lateral compartment. The posterolateral corner to Gerdy's tubercle anteriorly was exposed and examined. Once the Segond fracture was identified, it was recorded and photographed.
Results: Seventeen patients were enrolled in the study. Dissection of the Segond fracture demonstrated attachment to the anterolateral capsule only. No other discernible attachment to the Segond fracture was noted. Surgical exploration of the anterolateral knee did not reveal injury to the iliotibial band.
Conclusions: Careful dissection of Segond fractures during repair revealed that there is a discernible attachment with the anterolateral capsule to the bone injury in all patients with acute ACL tears undergoing surgical reconstruction and no connections to the iliotibial band.
Clinical relevance: The precise pathogenesis of Segond fractures has been the subject of debate, partially due to the complexity of the anatomy of the anterolateral aspect of the knee. Proper understanding of the anatomy of type IV ALL injures with Segond fractures is important to improve treatment of these injuries.
Mazza D, Monaco E, Redler A, Wolf MR, Iorio R, Daggett M, Massafra C, Ferretti A. Segond Fractures Involve the Anterolateral Knee Capsule But Not the Iliotibial Band. Arthroscopy, Sports Medicine, and Rehabilitation. 2021; 3(3). doi: 10.1016/j.asmr.2020.10.011.