Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction Is Associated With Significantly Reduced ACL Graft Rupture Rates at a Minimum Follow-up of 2 Years: A Prospective Comparative Study of 502 Patients From the SANTI Study Group
American Journal of Sports Medicine
Background: Graft failure and low rates of return to sport are major concerns after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, particularly in a population at risk.
Purpose: To evaluate the association between reconstruction techniques and subsequent graft rupture and return-to-sport rates in patients aged 16 to 30 years participating in pivoting sports.
Study design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.
Methods: A prospective study of patients undergoing primary ACL reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone (B-PT-B) graft, quadrupled hamstring tendon (4HT) graft, or hamstring tendon graft combined with anterolateral ligament reconstruction (HT+ALL) was conducted by the Scientific ACL NeTwork International (SANTI) Study Group. Survivorship data from Kaplan-Meier analysis were analyzed in multivariate Cox regression models to identify the prognosticators of graft ruptures and return to sport.
Results: Five hundred two patients (mean age, 22.4 ± 4.0 years) with a mean follow-up of 38.4 ± 8.5 months (range, 24-54 months) were included. There were 105 B-PT-B, 176 4HT, and 221 HT+ALL grafts. The mean postoperative scores at latest follow-up were the following: Lysholm: 92.4 ± 8.6, Tegner: 7.4 ± 2.1, and subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC): 86.8 ± 10.5 for B-PT-B grafts; Lysholm: 91.3 ± 9.9, Tegner: 6.6 ± 1.8, and subjective IKDC: 85.4 ± 10.4 for 4HT grafts; and Lysholm: 91.9 ± 10.2, Tegner: 7.0 ± 2.0, and subjective IKDC: 81.8 ± 13.1 for HT+ALL grafts. The mean side-to-side laxity was 0.6 ± 0.9 mm for B-PT-B grafts, 0.6 ± 1.0 mm for 4HT grafts, and 0.5 ± 0.8 mm for HT+ALL grafts. At a mean follow-up of 38.4 months, the graft rupture rates were 10.77% (range, 6.60%-17.32%) for 4HT grafts, 16.77% (range, 9.99%-27.40%) for B-PT-B grafts, and 4.13% (range, 2.17%-7.80%) for HT+ALL grafts. The rate of graft failure with HT+ALL grafts was 2.5 times less than with B-PT-B grafts (hazard ratio [HR], 0.393; 95% CI, 0.153-0.953) and 3.1 times less than with 4HT grafts (HR, 0.327; 95% CI, 0.130-0.758). There was no significant difference in the graft failure rate between 4HT and B-PT-B grafts (HR, 1.204; 95% CI, 0.555-2.663). Other prognosticators of graft failure included age ≤25 years ( P = .012) and a preoperative side-to-side laxity >7 mm ( P = .018). The HT+ALL graft was associated with higher odds of returning to preinjury levels of sport than the 4HT graft (odds ratio [OR], 1.938; 95% CI, 1.174-3.224) but not compared with the B-PT-B graft (OR, 1.460; 95% CI, 0.813-2.613).
Conclusion: In a high-risk population of young patients participating in pivoting sports, the rate of graft failure with HT+ALL grafts was 2.5 times less than with B-PT-B grafts and 3.1 times less than with 4HT grafts. The HT+ALL graft is also associated with greater odds of returning to preinjury levels of sport when compared with the 4HT graft.
anterior cruciate ligament, anterolateral ligament, graft rupture, knee, return to sport
Sonnery-Cottet B, Saithna A, Cavalier M, Kajetanek C, Temponi EF, Daggett M, Helito CP, Thaunat M. Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction Is Associated With Significantly Reduced ACL Graft Rupture Rates at a Minimum Follow-up of 2 Years: A Prospective Comparative Study of 502 Patients From the SANTI Study Group. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2017; 45(7). doi: 10.1177/0363546516686057.