Document Type


Publication Title

American Journal of Emergency Medicine


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare and determine whether there were any differences in clinical outcomes between pregnant and non-pregnant women who had been infected with COVID-19.

Methods: A literature search was performed in 9 databases on November 20, 2021. The relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to estimate the effect of pregnancy on COVID-19 outcomes. The I square value was used to assess heterogeneity, and the random or the fixed-effects model were adopted. Sensitivity and publication bias analyses were performed.

Results: This study included 8 published studies with 859,278 COVID-19 female patients. The incidences of fever and cough among pregnant women with COVID-19 were 19.07% and 28.79%, respectively. Pregnancy was associated with significantly increased risks of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (RR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.58-3.16) and ventilation (RR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.06-4.28), but was not associated with a statistically significant increase in mortality.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that pregnant women with COVID-19 have a significantly higher probability of being hospitalized to the ICU and ventilation than non-pregnant women with COVID-19. To avoid these adverse outcomes, pregnant women should take precautions (for example, reduce going out, maintain social distance, and wear a mask) to avoid COVID-19 infection. Finally, additional research into the fetal outcomes is required to better investigate the impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy.



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COVID-19, Meta-analysis, Pregnancy, SARS-COV-2, Women