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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity


Each cell in the body contains an intricate regulation for the expression of its relevant DNA. While every cell in a multicellular organism contains identical DNA, each tissue-specific cell expresses a different set of active genes. This organizational property exists in a paradigm that is largely controlled by forces external to the DNA sequence via epigenetic regulation. DNA methylation and chromatin modifications represent some of the classical epigenetic modifications that control gene expression. Complex tissues like skin consist of heterogeneous cell types that are spatially distributed and mixed. Furthermore, each individual skin cell has a unique response to physiological and pathological cues. As such, it is difficult to classify skin tissue as homogenous across all cell types and across different environmental exposures. Therefore, it would be prudent to isolate targeted tissue elements prior to any molecular analysis to avoid a possibility of confounding the sample with unwanted cell types. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a powerful technique used to isolate a targeted cell group with extreme microscopic precision. LCM presents itself as a solution to tackling the problem of tissue heterogeneity in molecular analysis. This review will cover an overview of LCM technology, the principals surrounding its application, and benefits of its application to the newly defined field of epigenomics, in particular of cutaneous pathology. This presents a comprehensive review about LCM and its use in the spatial analysis of skin epigenetics. Within the realm of skin pathology, this ability to isolate tissues under specific environmental stresses, such as oxidative stress, allows a far more focused investigation.



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Epigenesis, laser capture microdissection, skin chemistry, spatial analysis