Dose Adjustment Associated Complications of Bone Morphogenetic Protein: A Longitudinal Assessment

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World Neurosurgery


Objective: Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is a growth factor that aids in osteoinduction and promotes bone fusion. There is a lack of literature regarding recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) dosage in different spine surgeries. This study aims to investigate the trends in rhBMP-2 dosage and the associated complications in spinal arthrodesis.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted investigating spinal arthrodesis using rhBMP-2. Variables including age, procedure type, rhBMP-2 size, complications, and postoperative imaging were collected. Cases were grouped into the following surgical procedures: anterior lumbar interbody fusion/extreme lateral interbody fusion (ALIF/XLIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF/TLIF), posterolateral fusion (PLF), anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), and posterior cervical fusion (PCF).

Results: A total of 1209 patients who received rhBMP-2 from 2006 to 2020 were studied. Of these, 230 were categorized as ALIF/XLIF, 336 as PLIF/TLIF, 243 as PLF, 203 as ACDF, and 197 as PCF. PCF (P < 0.001), PLIF/TLIF (P < 0.001), and PLF (P < 0.001) demonstrated a significant decrease in the rhBMP-2 dose used per level, with major transitions seen in 2018, 2011, and 2013, respectively. In our sample, 129 complications following spinal arthrodesis were noted. A significant relation between rhBMP-2 size and complication rates (χ2= 73.73, P = 0.0029) was noted. rhBMP-2 dosage per level was a predictor of complication following spinal arthrodesis (odds ratio = 1.302 [1.05-1.55], P < 0.001).

Conclusions: BMP is an effective compound in fusing adjacent spine segments. However, it carries some regional complications. We demonstrate a decreasing trend in the dose/vertebral level. A decrease rhBMP-2 dose per level correlated with a decrease in complication rates.



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Bone morphogenetic protein, Dosage, Fusion, Neurosurgery, Spine