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Publication Title

American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene


The American Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has highlighted the need to gain a better understanding of this emerging virus. The goal of this study was to describe the clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, and risk factors for symptomatic ZIKV infection in an area with ongoing transmission of other arboviral infections. We recruited patients at least 2 years of age seeking care at public health centers in León, Nicaragua, between January 2016 and August 2017, for fever, maculopapular rash, and/or nonsuppurative conjunctivitis with a duration of less than 1 week. A laboratory diagnosis of ZIKV was established using a combination of molecular and serological tests. Clinical and laboratory findings and potential risk factors were compared between participants with and without acute ZIKV infection. Fifty-eight (26%) of the 225 participants included in the analysis were found to have acute ZIKV infection. Pregnancy and reports of previous arboviral infection were associated with a higher risk of ZIKV infection. Rash, conjunctivitis, sore throat, and lower absolute neutrophil counts were associated with acute ZIKV infection. The clinical characteristics and risk factors identified were consistent with those identified by previous studies; however, we found sore throat to be a feature of ZIKV infection. We also found that neutrophil counts were lower in ZIKV-infected subjects. These clinical symptoms and laboratory data may help clinicians suspect ZIKV infection during future outbreaks.



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Viral antibodies, Dengue Virus, Zika Virus