How Neuropsychiatric Comorbidity, Modulatory Indication, Demographics, and Other Factors Impact Deep Brain Stimulation Inpatient Outcomes in the United States: A Population-Based Study of 27,956 Patients

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Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery


Objective: To determine how neuropsychiatric comorbidity, modulatory indication, demographics, and other characteristics affect inpatient deep brain stimulation (DBS) outcomes.

Methods: This is a retrospective study of 45 months' worth of data from the National Inpatient Sample. Patients were aged ≥ 18 years old and underwent DBS for Parkinson Disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), general dystonia and related disorders, other movement disorder (non-PD/ET), or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) at a US hospital. Primary endpoints were prolonged length of stay (PLOS), high-end hospital charges (HEHCs), unfavorable disposition, and inpatient complications. Logistic models were constructed with odds ratios under 95% confidence intervals. A p-value of 0.05 determined significance.

Results: Of 214,098 records, there were 27,956 eligible patients. Average age was 63.9 ± 11.2 years, 17,769 (63.6%) were male, and 10,182 (36.4%) patients were female. Most of the cohort was White (51.1%), Medicare payer (64.3%), and treated at a large-bed size (80.7%), private non-profit (76.9%), and metro-teaching (94.0%) hospital. Neuropsychiatric comorbidity prevalence ranged from 29.9% to 47.7% depending on indication. Compared with PD, odds of complications and unfavorable disposition were significantly higher with other movement disorders and dystonia, whereas OCD conferred greater risk for HEHCs (p < 0.05). Patients with ET had favorable outcomes. Neuropsychiatric comorbidity, Black race, and Charlson Comorbidity Index > 0 were significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The risk of adverse inpatient outcomes for DBS in the United States is independently correlated with non-PD/ET disorders, neuropsychiatric comorbidity, and non-White race, reflecting the heterogeneity and infancy of widespread DBS for these patients.



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Clinical outcomes, Deep brain stimulation, National database, Neuropsychiatric comorbidity, Prevalence, Race