Association Between Household Air Pollution and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Environmental Science and Pollution Research International


Recently, a growing number of epidemiological studies have examined the relationship between household air pollution (HAP) and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. While the results were not entirely consistent, the current study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol to conduct a comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Data sources were PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library for studies published up to 12 May 2022. The pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the effect of household air pollution on all-cause and cause-special mortality. Then I square value (I2) was used to assess heterogeneity, and random-effects model was used as the pooling method. Seventeen studies were included in the quantitative analysis. Our results showed a significant association between household air pollution and increased risks of all-cause mortality (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.06-1.19) and cardiovascular disease mortality (RR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04-1.24). Similarly, the associations between household air pollution and mortality from other specific causes (respiratory, ischemic heart disease, stroke, and total cancer) were positive, although they were not statistically significant. The study suggests that exposure to household air pollution increases the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality. In addition, our results found a trend of increased mortality from the respiratory system, ischemic heart disease, stroke, and total cancer, with household air pollution.



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Household air pollution, Meta-analysis, Mortality, Observational study, Systematic review