Around 3.8 million traumatic brain injuries (TBI) occur every year from athletic participation. The signs and symptoms of each specific head injury can be difficult to delineate. Further, treatment for each injury varies significantly. While most sports-related head injuries are not life-threatening, prompt recognition of acute head injury with expedited care leads to better outcomes. Current medical education lacks in awareness of common sports-related head injuries and the acute management of these injuries. Due to this, a literature review was originally crafted to provide medical students with a brief education in the recognition, diagnosis, and acute management of sports-related head injuries. The objective is to provide a "survival guide" style of reference for medical students, but may also be useful for all primary care providers, first line responders, and athletic trainers. Current guidelines and primary studies were investigated to delineate common head injuries and their associated medical management. With this data, we developed a brief, overview regarding common head injuries that occur in sport-related activities. In addition to listing the most common brain injuries, we elaborate on how to develop acute care plans specific to each type of injury. The treatment plans could be enhanced via stratification into sex and age subcategories, as well as through studies including data regarding long-term observation.
acute subdural hematoma, brain concussion, brain trauma injury, diffuse axonal injury, epidural hematoma, traumatic brain injury, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage
De Stefano F, Fiani B, Mayo T. A Foundational "Survival Guide" Overview of Sports-Related Head Injuries. Cureus. 2020; 12(11). doi: 10.7759/cureus.11636.