Association of Organophosphate Ester Exposure With Cardiovascular Disease Among US Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings From the 2011-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as flame retardants and plasticizers worldwide. Therefore, the potentially deleterious effect of OPE on human beings deserves extensive attention. The primary objective of this present study was to untangle the relationship between OPE exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) among general population. Detailed information about participants' baseline characteristics, involving socioeconomic data, demographic data and key covariates was obtained from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2018. Multivariate logistic regression models with adjustment for prior-determined covariates were utilized to examine the relationship between various OPEs and CVD among US adults and calculate odd ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs). Two multi-pollutant statistical strategies (weighted quantile sum regression and Bayesian kernel machine regression) were employed to investigate the joint effect of OPE mixture on CVD. A total of 5067 participants were included in this study. In completely-adjusted logistic model, the highest tertiles of OPE metabolites were positively associated with CVD risk, while the relationships did not reach statistical significance. The weighted quantile sum (WQS) index was significantly correlated with increased prevalence of CVD (adjusted OR: 1.25; CI: 1.02, 1.53, p value = 0.032) and Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) was the greatest contributor (31.38%). The BKMR also indicated that mixed OPE exposure associated with an increased risk of CVD. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that there were possible links between OPE exposures and increased risk of CVD, while the relationships did not reach statistical significance. Our study provided the suggestive evidence that cumulative effect of OPE mixtures on CVD. DPHP may be a major driver of this positive association. Given the limitation of cross-sectional design and relatively limited kinds of OPE metabolites, further studies are warranted to longitudinally evaluate the potential effect of a wider range of OPEs on CVD or cardiac metabolism.



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BKMR, Cardiovascular disease, Joint effect, Organophosphate esters, WQS