Combined Exposure to Multiple Dioxins and Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Hypertension Among US Adults in NHANES: A Cross-Sectional Study Under Three Statistical Models

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Environmental Science and Pollution Research International


Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are mainly released as by-products of human activities, often in the form of mixtures, and the potential harm on human health deserves attention. Therefore, our study aimed to analyze the combined effect of dioxins and DL-PCB exposures on hypertension (HTN) among US adults. Data of eligible participants were acquired from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Multiple logistic regression models with adjustment for covariates were applied to explore the associations between 13 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and HTN. Stratified analyses and interaction analyses were then conducted by age and gender. Finally, the combined effects of dioxins and DL-PCBs on HTN were assessed by the weighted quantile sum (WQS) model and the Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) model. A total of 976 adults were included in our study, of whom 397 had HTN. Spearman correlations indicated positive correlations among 13 POPs. And most of them (except PCB28, PCB66, and 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-hpcdf) had significant effects on HTN. The result of WQS revealed that mixed exposure to dioxins and DL-PCBs was significantly associated with increased risk of HTN (OR: 2.205; 95% CIs: 1.555, 3.127). The BKMR model also presented a positive trend of HTN risk with exposure to multiple dioxins and DL-PCBs. And 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-ocdd may be the main factor for this positive association. Considering the limitations of our cross-sectional study with the small sample, further prospective studies are necessary to validate our findings.



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Bayesian kernel machine regression, Combined effects, Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, Dioxins, Hypertension, Weighted quantile sum