Associations of Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Thiocyanate With Metabolic Syndrome and its Components Among US Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study From NHANES

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The Science of the Total Environment


Perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate are common endocrine disruptors. Herein, this study was undertaken to evaluate the associations between perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate exposures (alone or in combination) and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among adults, which has not been explored so far. Analytical data were extracted from different datasets in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to investigate the associations between perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate exposures, and the prevalence of MetS. Subsequently, odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were adopted to represent the magnitude of the effect size. We performed a series of subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses as well. Moreover, three commonly used mixture modeling strategies [Weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression, quantile-based g-computation (Qgcomp), and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR)] were utilized to evaluate the joint mixture effect on MetS. This study included 12,007 participants in the subsequent analyses. After adjustment for confounding factors, higher levels of perchlorate, and thiocyanate concentrations were significantly associated with the risk of MetS (OR = 1.15, 95%CI:1.00, 1.32; OR = 1.21, 95%CI:1.04, 1.41, respectively). Analyses of WQS and Qgcomp showed that a quartile increase in chemical mixture was correlated with the occurrence of MetS with ORs of 1.07 (95%CI: 0.99, 1.16) and 1.07 (95%CI: 1.00, 1.14), respectively. This positive association was mainly driven by perchlorate and thiocyanate. Analysis of BKMR revealed that perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate mixture was positively associated with the risk of MetS while perchlorate, and thiocyanate were major predictors in the mixture. In summary, our study reveals positive relationships between perchlorate, thiocyanate and MetS. Co-exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate is positively associated with the risk of MetS, with perchlorate and thiocyanate contributing the most to the overall mixture effect.



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MetS, Mixture, NHANES, Nitrate, Perchlorate, Thiocyanate