Laryngeal cancer is predominantly a squamous cell in origin that can present with voice changes and difficulty or pain with swallowing. It is more likely to cause local spread than distant ones. The prognosis depends on multiple factors, including the stage, tumor differentiation, extranodal extension, and adjuvant therapy. Head and neck cancers have a higher tendency for perineural invasion and spread, one of the most vital factors correlating with poor outcomes and recurrence rates. We present a rare case of a 52-year-old male with an extensive history of tobacco use (five packs per day over 30 years) who developed laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma that spread to the brain despite total laryngectomy and adjuvant radiation therapy. Despite resection of the brain metastasis, the tumor metastasized again in the brain through perineural spread. Due to the side effects of repeated radiotherapy and starting chemotherapy, the patient opted for comfort care and refused further treatment. The perineural spread of head and neck cancers is not abundant in the literature, and we believe our case will add to the future treatment of head and neck cancers with perineural invasion.
total laryngectomy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, perineural invasion (PNI), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas (LSCCs)
Ghrewati M, Mahmoud A, Beilani T, Kumar M. Rare Direct Locoregional Brain Metastasis and Recurrence in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Cureus. 2023; 15(10). doi: 10.7759/cureus.46676.