Toward a Molecular Diagnosis: Looking Under the Skin at Allergic Contact Dermatitis
Current Dermatology Reports
Purpose of Review: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is diagnosed by patch testing, which is a visual examination. This review summarizes research studies that have identified inflammatory pathways involved in ACD. Recent Findings: ACD was historically thought to be driven solely through Th1 immunity. More recent clinical insights in the era of targeted immunotherapy have revealed an important, but not a paramount, role for Th2 immunity in promoting ACD inflammation. Pioneering studies done first in animal models of ACD suggest there are unique T cell responses dependent upon contact allergen and recent human translational studies demonstrate the diversity of T cell responses to various allergens, which may in part explain the mixed success of immunotherapy in ACD. Summary: Unbiased machine learning approaches in the era of single-cell transcriptome and proteome studies have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of the pathophysiology of ACD, identify common pathways in responses to allergens, and perhaps discover central targets for universal therapy.
contact dermatitis, patch testing, Th1 Th2 Th17 inflammation, allergy
Bahamon I, Strassner JP, Ko WC. Toward a Molecular Diagnosis: Looking Under the Skin at Allergic Contact Dermatitis. Current Dermatology Reports. 2023; . doi: 10.1007/s13671-023-00410-y.