Document Type


Publication Title




Limited research exists on the association between coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection and outcomes following surgical fixation for humerus fractures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of COVID-19 on the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing humerus fracture surgery.


Approval to utilize insurance claim data from the Change Healthcare dataset was obtained from the Datavant COVID-19 Research Database. Patients older than 55 years old who underwent humerus fracture surgery from April 1, 2020, to March 1, 2022, were included in the analysis. COVID-19 status, comorbidities, and adverse events were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) diagnostic codes. Propensity score matching with age, sex, and comorbidities was completed to create a 1:10 matched COVID-19-negative cohort. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to assess the association of COVID-19 positivity with perioperative adverse events.


A total of 18,365 patients underwent humerus fracture surgery in this study, of which 132 (0.72%) tested positive for COVID-19. Univariate analysis found that COVID-19-positive patients were at higher risk for myocardial infarction (5.30% vs. 1.74%, p = 0.015) and acute kidney injury (28.79% vs. 12.50%, p < 0.001) when compared to the 1:10 matched COVID-19-negative cohort. In addition, multivariate logistic regression found that COVID-19-positive patients had higher odds of experiencing any adverse event (2.57; 95% CI: 1.69-3.91; p < 0.001) or a minor adverse event (2.44; 95% CI: 1.57-3.79; p < 0.001).


COVID-19-positive patients have increased odds of experiencing adverse events after undergoing humerus fracture surgery in comparison to a matched COVID-19-negative control. Findings from this study stress the importance of using COVID-19 status as a factor in predicting outcomes following orthopedic surgery in this patient population.



Publication Date



COVID-19, epidemiology, humerus fractures, older adults, postoperative complications, orthopedic trauma during COVID-19, risk factors