Higher Expression of HSF1 Is Associated with Worse Outcome in Liver Cancer

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Journal of the American College of Surgeons


Introduction: Liver cancer (LC) is a common gastrointestinal cancer. Previous studies have shown that the HSF1 gene is overexpressed in various cancers, including LC. This study aimed to investigate the clinical values of HSF1 in LC.

Methods: RNA-sequencing data and clinical information of 50 normal liver tissues and 424 LC tumor tissues were extracted from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). HSF1 expression was compared between normal and cancer tissues using Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Survival analyses of overall survival (OS) and diseases specific survival (DSS), and progression free interval (PFI) were conducted by Kaplan-Meier (K-M) method. A nomogram with calibration was visualized to predict the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS and individual predictors.

Results: The expression of HSF1 was upregulated in tumors compared with normal tissues in the overall LC group. In the survival analysis of LC, the HR of OS was 1.96 (95% CI 1.37-2.78, P<0.001) and the HR of DSS was 1.75 (95% CI 1.12-2.73, P=0.014). The nomogram based on pathologic stage and HSF1 expression level has a concordance index (C-index) of 0.655 (0.626-0.684). The calibration curves of 1-, 3-, and 5-year indicated the consistency of our results and the predictive values, indicating satisfactory performance for this nomogram.

Conclusion: Our study found that HSF1 is upregulated in LC tumor samples and has good diagnostic value. Higher expression of HSF1 is associated with worse OS and DSS in LC. The HSF1-based nomogram developed in this study may help predict PFI outcomes.



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