Document Type


Publication Title



Phage display is a versatile method often used in the discovery of peptides that targets disease-related biomarkers. A major advantage of this technology is the ease and cost efficiency of affinity selection, also known as biopanning, to identify novel peptides. While it is relatively straightforward to identify peptides with optimal binding affinity, the pharmacokinetics of the selected peptides often prove to be suboptimal. Therefore, careful consideration of the experimental conditions, including the choice of using in vitro, in situ, or in vivo affinity selections, is essential in generating peptides with high affinity and specificity that also demonstrate desirable pharmacokinetics. Specifically, in vivo biopanning, or the combination of in vitro, in situ, and in vivo affinity selections, has been proven to influence the biodistribution and clearance of peptides and peptide-conjugated nanoparticles. Additionally, the marked difference in properties between peptides and nanoparticles must be considered. While peptide biodistribution depends primarily on physiochemical properties and can be modified by amino acid modifications, the size and shape of nanoparticles also affect both absorption and distribution. Thus, optimization of the desired pharmacokinetic properties should be an important consideration in biopanning strategies to enable the selection of peptides and peptide-conjugated nanoparticles that effectively target biomarkers in vivo.



Publication Date



phage display, peptides, pharmacokinetics, biopanning, affinity selection, nanoparticles