Document Type


Publication Title

Frontiers in Immunology


Although costimulatory molecules have been shown to boost antitumor immune responses, their significance in stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the gene expression patterns of costimulatory molecule genes in patients with STAD and develop a predictive signature to aid in therapy selection and outcome prediction. We used 60 costimulatory family genes from prior research to conduct the first complete costimulatory molecular analysis in patients with STAD. In the two study groups, consensus clustering analysis based on these 60 genes indicated unique distribution patterns and prognostic differences. Using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator and Cox regression analysis, we identified nine costimulatory molecular gene pairs (CMGPs) with prognostic value. With these nine CMGPs, we were able to develop a costimulatory molecule-related prognostic signature that performed well in an external dataset. For the patients with STAD, the signature was proven to be a risk factor independent of the clinical characteristics, indicating that this signature may be employed in conjunction with clinical considerations. A further connection between the signature and immunotherapy response was discovered. The patients with high mutation rates, an abundance of infiltrating immune cells, and an immunosuppressive milieu were classified as high-risk patients. It is possible that these high-risk patients have a better prognosis for immunotherapy since they have higher cytolytic activity scores and immunophenoscores of CTLA4 and PD-L1/PD-L2 blockers. Therefore, our signature may help clinicians in assessing patient prognosis and developing treatment plans.



Publication Date



STAD, costimulatory molecule, immunotherapy, nomogram, prognostic signature