Despite reports of a high incidence and various predictors of post-stroke depression (PSD), the underdiagnosis and undertreatment rates of PSD are still high. This study aimed to examine the incidence of depression in stroke patients and identify factors associated with PSD. This was a retrospective cohort study on ischemic stroke patients from the Geisinger Neuroscience Ischemic Stroke (GNSIS) registry. The following statistical analyses were performed to predict PSD in the studied population: a Kaplan-Meier estimator and a Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 5882 patients were included in the study. The median age at the time of an ischemic stroke was 72 years and 56% were males. A total of 294 patients were diagnosed with PSD within one year of a stroke. The cumulative incidence of depression was found to be 6.4% (95% CI 5.7-7.1%) at one year for the entire cohort. Women were found to have a higher risk of PSD than men (HR for women = 1.47, 95% CI 1.18-1.85, p = 0.001). A history of prior stroke (HR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.18-2.11, p = 0.002) and myocardial infarction (HR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.05-2.06, p = 0.025) were associated with PSD. Medicaid patients had a higher risk for PSD (HR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.5-3.12, p < 0.001) than those with commercial insurance or health maintenance organization plans. Our findings showed that women, patients with a history of prior stroke or myocardial infarction, and with Medicaid insurance were more likely to develop PSD. Through an observational study on the EHR data, we confirmed that chronic stress, including financial and health-related stress, irrespective of age, significantly increased the risk for PSD.
ischemic stroke, post-stroke depression, predictors, stroke
Chaudhary D, Friedenberg I, Sharma V, Sharma P, Abedi V, Zand R, Li J. Predictors of Post-Stroke Depression: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Brain Sciences. 2022; 12(8). doi: 10.3390/brainsci12080993.