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Frontiers in Endocrinology


Background: Liver resection (LR) and local tumor destruction (LTD) are effective treatments, but not commonly recommended for patients with intermediate/advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to explore whether LR/LTD could improve overall survival (OS) of these patients, and to identify the patients who will most likely benefit from LR/LTD.

Methods: Data of patients with intermediate/advanced HCC between 2001 and 2018 were extracted from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. OS was compared between HCC patients who received LR/LTD and those who did not. A nomogram was constructed for predicting OS, and it was then validated.

Results: A total of 535 eligible patients were included, among which 128 received LR/LTD while 407 did not. Significantly higher OS in patients who received LR/LTD was observed (P<0.001). Based on independent prognostic factors obtained from univariate and multivariate analyses, a nomogram was constructed. The C-indices of nomogram were higher than those of the TNM staging system (training cohort: 0.74 vs. 0.59; validation cohort: 0.78 vs. 0.61). Similarly, areas under receiver operating characteristic curves and calibration curves indicated good accuracy of the nomogram. Decision curve analysis curves revealed good clinical practicability of the nomogram. Furthermore, low-risk patients (nomogram score: 0-221.9) had higher OS compared with high-risk patients (nomogram score: higher than 221.9) (P<0.001).

Conclusion: LR/LTD significantly improves OS in patients with intermediate/advanced HCC. The nomogram developed in the present study shows high predicating value for OS in patients with intermediate/advanced HCC, which might be useful in selecting patients who are most suitable for LR/LTD.



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liver resection, local tumor destruction, hepatocellular carcinoma, survival, nomogram